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W and Z bosons - Simple English Wikipedia, the free

W and Z bosons are a group of elementary particles.They are bosons, which means that they have a spin of 0 or 1. Both had been found in experiments by the year 1983. Together, they are responsible for a force known as weak force.Weak force is called weak because it is not as strong as the strong force. There are two W bosons with different charges, the normal W +, and its antiparticle, the The Z boson spin observables as messengers of new physics J. A. Aguilar-Saavedra1,a, J. Bernabéu2,3,V.A.Mitsou3, A. Segarra2,3 1 Departamento de Física Teórica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada , 18071 Granada, Spain 2 Departament de Física Teòrica, Universitat de València, 46100 Burjassot, Spai Differential measurements of the Z spin observables as functions of $$\theta$$ and $$\phi$$ are possible with sufficient statistics, but for simplicity we consider here the integrated density matrix, using for the Z boson rest frame the $$(\hat{x}',\hat{y}',\hat{z}')$$ coordinate system implied by the standard boost from the rest frame of A, with the $$\hat{z}'$$ axis in the Z helicity. W och Z bosonerna är de elementarpartiklar som tillsammans bär den svaga växelverkan.W-bosonen kan ha en positiv eller negativ laddning av 1 elementarladdning och de är varandras antipartikel, därav W + och W −.Z-bosonen är en neutral partikel som är sin egen antipartikel. Dessa tre partiklarna har en spinn av 1 och har väldigt korta livslängder, kring 3×10 −25 s

The Z boson spin observables as messengers of new physic

• Spin states: 2: In particle physics, W′ and Zbosons (or W-prime and Z-prime bosons) Because the W′ comes from the breaking of an SU(2), it is generically accompanied by a Zboson of (almost) the same mass and with couplings related to the W′ couplings
• The successful LHC operation suggests going beyond the search of excess of events for the quest of new physics. We demonstrate that the eight multipole parameters describing the spin state of the W or Z bosons are able to disentangle their hidden production mechanism. They can be separately extracted from well defined angular asymmetries in the leptonic distribution of boson decays. The.
• The Z 0 boson cannot change either electric charge nor any other charges (like strangeness, charm, etc.), only spin and momentum, so it never changes the generation or flavor of the particle emitting it (see weak neutral current)

The Z boson spin observables as messengers of new physics

• En boson är en partikel med heltaligt spinn.Bosoner av samma typ, till exempel en samling fotoner, är ourskiljbara och lyder under Bose-Einstein-statistik.. I partikelfysikens standardmodell är de kraftbärande elementarpartiklarna, som förmedlar de fyra fundamentala naturkrafterna, bosoner: gluonerna, fotonen, W- och Z-bosonerna och den hypotetiska gravitonen
• For a spin-1 boson travelling along the z-axis, the polarization four vectors are: transverse longitudinal transverse Longitudinal polarization isn t present for on-shell massless particles, the photon can exist in two helicity states (LH and RH circularly polarized light) Prof. M.A. T.
• Z boson spin observables as given by (6) The measurement of these coefficients is made differentially, as function of the transverse momentum and rapidity of the Z boson. In Fig. 4 we present the polar and azimuthal angle distributions as measured by CMS at 8 TeV in the indicated region of transverse momentu

The W and Z bosons are together known as the weak or more generally as the intermediate vector bosons. These elementary particles mediate the weak interaction; the respective symbols are W +, W −, and Z.The W bosons have a positive and negative electric charge of 1 elementary charge respectively and are each other's antiparticles.The Z boson is electrically neutral and is its own antiparticle Spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (), and atomic nuclei.. Spin is one of two types of angular momentum in quantum mechanics, the other being orbital angular momentum.The orbital angular momentum operator is the quantum-mechanical counterpart to the classical angular momentum of orbital revolution and appears when there is. Das Z-Boson (Formelzeichen) ist ein Eichboson und damit ein Elementarteilchen.Es vermittelt ebenso wie das mit ihm verwandte W-Boson die schwache Wechselwirkung.Während das W-Boson elektrisch geladen ist, ist das Z-Boson neutral. Es ist sein eigenes Antiteilchen.. Ähnlich wie das Photon, aber anders als die W-Bosonen, vermittelt das Z-Boson eine Wechselwirkung zwischen Teilchen, ohne dabei.

W och Z bosoner - Wikipedi

Los bosones W y Z son las partículas mediadoras de la interacción nuclear débil, una de las cuatro interacciones fundamentales de la naturaleza. Son dos tipos de partículas fundamentales, muy masivas, que se encargan en general de cambiar el sabor de otras partículas, los leptones y los quarks.. Fueron descubiertas en el CERN, en 1983; aunque su existencia y características generales. In quantum mechanics, a boson (/ ˈ b oʊ s ɒ n /, / ˈ b oʊ z ɒ n /) is a particle that follows Bose-Einstein statistics.Bosons make up one of two classes of elementary particles, the other being fermions. The name boson was coined by Paul Dirac to commemorate the contribution of Satyendra Nath Bose, an Indian physicist and professor of physics at University of Calcutta and at University. The Z-boson mass listed here corresponds to the mass parameter in a Breit-Wigner distribution with mass dependent width. The value is 34 MeV greater than the real part of the position of the pole (in the energy-squared plane) in the Z-boson propagator. Also the LEP experiment

W′ and Z′ bosons - Wikipedi

Schwinger boson theory of Z 2 spin liquids Subir Sachdev Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 02138, USA (Dated: March 26, 2018) Abstract We use the Schwinger boson representation of quantum spins to obtain a di erent perspective on Z 2 spin liquids spin 1 nature of the Z boson, also in accordance with the Standard Model. iii. R esum e Cette th ese pr esente les r esultats de deux mesures du boson Z, l'un des m ediateurs de la force d'interaction faible du Mod ele Standard de la physique des particules. La premi er

Symbol: Z, Z 0 Group: boson, gauge boson Rest mass: 98 u Charge: 0 Mean lifetime: 3 x 10-25 sec Spin: 1: The Z boson, like the W boson, is a carrier of the weak interaction.It is formed at modifications of elementary particles, where only the spin, but not the charge and the particle type change We demonstrate that the eight multipole parameters describing the spin state of the Z boson are able to disentangle known Z production mechanisms and signals from new physics at the LHC. They can be extracted from appropriate asymmetries in the angular distribution of lepton pairs from the Z boson decay. The power of this analysis is illustrated by (1) the production of Z boson plus jets; (2. The Z boson has been measured extremely precisely at the earlier particle accelerator at CERN, the LEP (Large Electron-Positron Collider). LEP was actually nicknamed the Z-factory! The Z boson is a necessary part in the jigsaw puzzle, which makes up our theory of elementary particles and their interactions

The Z boson spin observables as messengers of new physics J. A. Aguilar-Saavedra, J. Bernabéu, V. A. Mitsou, A. Segarra; Affiliations J. A. Aguilar-Saavedra Departamento de Física Teórica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada J. Bernabéu Departament de Física Teòrica, Universitat de València V. A formalism of a general spin-1 density matrix has been used to study the effect of the CP-conserving anomalous ZZγ and Zγγ couplings on the Z boson spin orientation in ee→Zγ with transversely polarized beams. Analytical expressions for the transverse polarization contributions from the Standard Model and from the interference of the Standard Model and anomalous couplings amplitudes to. Spin (von englisch spin ‚Drehung', ‚Drall') ist in der Teilchenphysik der Eigendrehimpuls von Teilchen. Bei den fundamentalen Teilchen ist er wie die Masse eine unveränderliche innere Teilcheneigenschaft.Er beträgt ein halb-oder ganzzahliges Vielfaches (Spinquantenzahl) des reduzierten planckschen Wirkungsquantums.Abgesehen davon, dass er nicht durch die (Dreh-)Bewegung einer Masse.

By creating original work, you will further the cause of humanity. I'm Stan Magendanz & I love listening to & creating Ambient, Dark Ambient & Experimental electronica (and the occasional beatscape).. Brisbane. 3686 Tracks. 2899 Followers. Stream Tracks and Playlists from Boson Spin on your desktop or mobile device Electroweak symmetry breaking explains the origin of the masses of elementary particles via their interactions with the Higgs field. Besides the measurements of the Higgs boson properties, the study of the scattering of massive vector bosons (with spin one) at the Large Hadron Collider allows to probe the nature of electroweak symmetry breaking with an unprecedented sensitivity. Among all. Gluons. Gluons are the exchange particles for the color force between quarks, analogous to the exchange of photons in the electromagnetic force between two charged particles. The gluon is considered to be a massless vector boson with spin 1. The gluon can be considered to be the fundamental exchange particle underlying the strong interaction between protons and neutrons in a nucleus

Entre los ejemplos de bosones se incluyen partículas fundamentales como fotones, gluones, bosones W y Z (los cuatro bosones de gauge, portadores de fuerza del modelo estándar), el bosón de Higgs, y el gravitón [6] de gravedad cuántica; partículas compuestas (por ej.: mesones y núcleos estables de número de masa par como el deuterio (con un protón y un neutrón, número másico = 2. A method based on a general relativistic spin-1 density matrix formalism has been used to find analytically the possible CP-conserving anomalous Z Z γ and Z γ γ couplings corrections to the polarization vector and the alignment tensor for the Z boson in the process e + e − → Z γ with longitudinally polarized initial beams. The role of longitudinal polarization of the initial beams for. A formalism of a general spin-1 density matrix has been used to study the effect of the CP-conserving anomalous ZZγ and Zγγ couplings on the Z boson spin orientation in e + e − → Z γ with transversely polarized beams. Analytical expressions for the transverse polarization contributions from the Standard Model and from the interference of the Standard Model and anomalous couplings. Unified Electroweak spin = 1 force carriers spin = 0, 1, 2, Strong (color) spin = 1 Mass Electric Name GeV/c2 charge gluon Higgs Boson spin = 0 Mass Electric Name GeV/c2 charge 126 Higgs Name photon W bosons Z boson Mass Electric GeV/c2 charge 80.39 80.39 91.188 C 2016 Contemporary Physics Education Project CPEPphysics.org Upload an image to customize your repository's social media preview. Images should be at least 640×320px (1280×640px for best display)

[1711.04250] The W and Z boson spin observables as ..

1. Boson is the name for a generic class of particles. The Higgs boson is one (if it exists) but so are many other particles. All the particles which carry forces (gluons, the W and the Z and the photon
2. This note describes the search for a heavy spin-1 resonance decaying into a Z boson and the 125-GeV Higgs boson, where the Z boson is identified through its leptonic decays (electrons, muons or neutrinos) and the Higgs boson is identified through its decay to quarks. The search is performed in the boosted regime for resonances with masses larger than 800 GeV
3. Dat Z-Boson (Z 0) is en Liekboson (Uttuuschdeelken) un tellt to de Elementardeelken.. Dat Deelken is jüst so as dat W-Boson en Vermiddler för de swack Wesselwirken un hett den Spin 1. Dorüm tellt dat ok to de Bosonen.Man in'n Ünnerscheed to dat W-Boson is dat Z-Boson nich elektrisch laadt. De Rohmasse vun't Z-Boson liggt bi 91,1876 GeV, wat meist 91 mol so swoor is as en Proton
4. The Higgs boson have zero electric charge and zero spin is the only scalar boson. The last four bosons are known as gauge bosons or force carriers as they are responsible for fundamental interactions. The gluon is responsible for the strong interaction that appears between particles made of quarks

Why does the Z boson only decay to fermion-antifermion pairs? I'd just like to understand the basic reason why something like Z --> anti-down, strange wouldn't work. This would conserve charge. It obviously wouldn't conserve strangeness, but the weak interaction doesn't, so I'm just wondering.. Spin-Boson Modell Outline 1 Bloch-Equations 2 ClassicalDissipations 3 Spin-BosonModell 4 Summary 22/45. Spin-Boson Modell Areviewofthespinmodel Anytwostatesystem(TSS)canbemodeledbythespinformalism. 23/45. Spin-Boson Modell Areviewofthespinmodel UnperturbedTSS H = E 1 0 0 E 2 eigenv.fjgi;jeig 24/45. Spin-Boson Model

We apply a formalism of the general relativistic spin-1 density matrix (obtained by boosting the nonrelativistic one) to calculate analytically the spin orientation (polarization vector and alignment tensor) of the Z boson in the processes e + e Spin Classification. One essential parameter for classification of particles is their spin or intrinsic angular momentum.Half-integer spin fermions are constrained by the Pauli exclusion principle whereas integer spin bosons are not. The electron is a fermion with electron spin 1/2. The quarks are also fermions with spin 1/2. The photon is a boson with spin 1, which is a typical boson spin Boson Spin - Diumerval

W_and_Z_bosons - chemeurope

• ation • Feynman diagram calculation: • electromagnetic or weak interaction process (scattering/decay) • use Feynman rules and get to a cross section or decay rate • In sum
• The dotted and dash-dotted lines correspond to the results of uu tt and dd tt, respectively. - Influence of Z' boson on top quark spin correlations at the LHC Figure 1: The dependence of the cross section of the top-antitop quark pair production by quark pair annihilation and gluon fusion on the center-of-mass energy of colliding partons Mtt
• ation of the spin of the particle. The measurements are made with the 6.1 $\textrm{fb}^{-1}$ proton-proton collision data collected by the ATLAS detector in 2016 at a center of mass energy of 13 TeV with the Large Hadron Collider
• A Z 0 with another Z 0? It's just as good, from a matter-antimatter perspective, as an electron-positron annihilation is. A boson -- like a photon -- can be its own antiparticle, but fermions.
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ﬁnal-state spin-1/2 leptons mediated by a spin-1 intermediate state, predominantly the Z boson. The Collins-Soper (CS) reference frame [33] is used to deﬁne the lepton polar and azimuthal angular vari Study of the Mass and Spin-Parity of the Higgs Boson Candidate via Its Decays to Z Boson Pair In particle physics, a boson is a type of particle that obeys the rules of Bose-Einstein statistics. These bosons also have a quantum spin with contains an integer value, such as 0, 1, -1, -2, 2, etc. (By comparison, there are other types of particles, called fermions, that have a half-integer spin, such as 1/2, -1/2, -3/2, and so on. The Z boson is a hypothetical massive, electrically-neutral and color-singlet particle of spin 1. This particle is predicted in many extensions of the standard model, and has been the object of extensive phenomenological studies [1]. Z couplings to quarks and leptons (a), (b) Dispersion of the Schwinger boson bands for the mean-field approximation to H spin , with J x A = J y A = 1, B = 0.5 i, and D ∥ = 0.10, in (a) zero and (b) large (B z = 2) magnetic fields. Shown are the eigenvalues of the dynamic matrix; the bosonic bands have energies given by the absolute values of the same, which are always positive

Boson - Wikipedi

• osity of 137 $$\,\text {fb}^{-1}$$
• Stream Boson Spin - Eigiblyz by Boson Spin from desktop or your mobile device. SoundCloud. Boson Spin - Eigiblyz by Boson Spin published on 2020-09-12T01:10:52Z. Users who liked this track No Mates Ensemble. Mat Ward. Hobart. Noura El Ghazali. Noura El Ghazali. The flies Remains. Here The flies Swarm.
• Boson Z, hay hạt Z, là một hạt cơ bản, có khối lượng khoảng 91 Ge·V/c 2, tương tương với khối lượng của nguyên tử Zirconium.. Boson Z là hạt trung hòa và không có sự khác biệt trong số lượng tử.Vì thế phản hạt của boson Z chính là boson Z. . Boson Z là hạt trung gian trong tương tác yếu và không làm ảnh hưởng.
• Bosony W a Z jsou elementární částice, které zprostředkovávají slabou (výměnnou) interakci v atomovém jádře a v reakcích elementárních částic. Byly objeveny v CERNu roku 1983 a jsou považovány za hlavní úspěch teorie Standardního modelu fyziky částic.. Jméno částice W vychází z anglického slova weak, což znamená slabý a označuje slabou interakci
• Z: 0 e Spin: 1 Bosões (português europeu) ou Bósons (português brasileiro) W e Z (conhecidos como bósons fracos ou, menos especificamente, os bósons vetoriais intermediários) são partículas elementares que mediam a força fraca; seus símbolos são W+, W− e Z. Os bósons W tem uma carga elétrica positiva e uma negativa de.
• Le boson Z 0 est une particule élémentaire de la classe des bosons.Il est l'un des trois bosons de jauge de l'interaction faible, la particule porteuse de l'interaction, les deux autres étant le boson W sous deux états opposés de charges électriques notés W + et W-.La charge électrique du boson Z 0 est nulle, égale à zéro, d'où son nom
• Boson Z làm trung gian chuyển động lượng, spin và năng lượng khi neutrino tán xạ đàn hồi từ vật chất (một quá trình bảo toàn điện tích). Hành vi như vậy gần như phổ biến như tương tác neutrino không đàn hồi và có thể được quan sát thấy trong các buồng bong bóng khi chiếu xạ với chùm neutrino

A study is presented of the mass and spin-parity of the new boson recently observed at the LHC at a mass near 125 GeV. An integrated luminosity of 17.3 fb-1, collected by the CMS experiment in proton-proton collisions at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV, is used En mécanique quantique, un boson est une particule subatomique de spin entier qui obéit à la statistique de Bose-Einstein.Le théorème spin-statistique différencie les bosons des fermions, qui ont un spin demi-entier.. La famille des bosons inclut des particules élémentaires : les photons, les gluons, les bosons Z et W (ce sont les quatre bosons de jauge du modèle standard), le boson. We consider superconducting circuits for the purpose of simulating the spin-boson model. The spin-boson model consists of a single two-level system coupled to bosonic modes. In most cases, the model is considered in a limit where the bosonic modes are sufficiently dense to form a continuous spectral bath. A very well known case is the Ohmic bath, where the density of states grows linearly with.

Study of the Mass and Spin-Parity of the Higgs Boson Candidate via Its Decays to Z Boson Pairs. S. Chatrchyan, P. Eerola, G. Fedi, Mikko Voutilainen, J. Härkönen, Aatos Heikkinen,. Discovery of the Dark matter particle in the form of very low mass Boson particle with mass of magnitude 8.7×10 to the power-13 eV is right.The mass of resultant star after merge of two stars differs with units such that supports the thermodynamic process has occured also the cosmic wave backgròund is supporting simultaneòusly.Next calculation showing the sum to250 units after the merge of. There are three known types ( Z boson. They are named in analogy with the Standard Model W and Z bosons.; The W and Z bosons also have spin 1.; The heaviest single particle is the Z boson.; Thus, this interaction requires a Z boson.; The Z boson is not involved in the absorption or emission of electrons and positrons.; Three components of the Higgs field become part of the massive W and Z.

A boson is a particle which carries a force.It has a whole number spin (spin is a property of subatomic particles).Bosons carry energy.. A photon is an example of a boson as it has a spin of 1 and carries electromagnetism. Mesons are also bosons as they carry nuclear force.. Bosons are different from fermions, which are particles that make up matter, because bosons obey Bose-Einstein statistics Boson Spin. Brisbane, Australia. My name is Stan Magendanz & I've been creating ambient, dark ambient & experimental electronica since 200 Basic tiles are 240x240px usually spaced 250px apart. image/svg+xml Wikimedia Commons Standard Model of Elementary Particles and Gravit boson carrier photon γ boson carrier Z boson Z boson carrier gluon g boson carrier? candidate graviton G boson carrier W boson W± boson Higgs boson H

A study is presented of the mass and spin-parity of the new boson recently observed at the LHC at a mass near 125 GeV. An integrated luminosity of 17.3 fb[superscript -1], collected by the CMS experiment in proton-proton collisions at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV, is used W- og Z- boson (i lag kalla svake boson eller mellomliggande vektorboson) er elementærpartiklar som formidlar svak kjernekraft.Symbola deira er W +, W-og Z.W-bosona har positiv og negativ ladning på 1 elementærladning og er kvarandre sine antipartiklar.Z-bosonet er uladd eller nøytralt og er sin eigen antipartikkel. Dei tre partiklane har alle særs kort levetid med ei halveringstid på.

ウィークボソン (weak boson) は素粒子物理学において、弱い相互作用を媒介する素粒子である。 弱ボソンとも言う。ウィークボソンはスピン1のベクトル ボソンで、WボソンとZボソンの二種類が存在する。 Wボソンは陽子の約80倍、Zボソンは約90倍と他の素粒子に比べて大きな質量をもち、ごく短. Higgs boson, also called Higgs particle, particle that is the carrier particle, or boson, of the Higgs field, a field that permeates space and endows all elementary subatomic particles with mass through its interactions with them. The field and the particle—named after Peter Higgs of the University of Edinburgh, one of the physicists who in 1964 first proposed the mechanism—provided a. (physics) A particle with totally symmetric composite quantum states, which exempts them from the Pauli exclusion principle, and that hence obeys Bose-Einstein statistics. They have integer spin. Among them are many elementary particles, and some (gauge bosons) are known to carry the fundamental forces. Compare fermion.··(obsolete) A. The Z 0 boson may have been so-named because it has Zero electric charge. Neutrinos are electrically-neutral particles that are only affected by the weak nuclear force. The fact that photons have zero rest mass allows the range of the electromagnetic force to be infinite, but the fact that the range of W and Z bosons reaches only across the atomic nucleus necessitates that those bosons have mass Nuclear and Particle Physics Franz Muheim 6 Z0 ResonanceResonance e+ e-Annihilations→Hadrons at High Energies √s < 50 GeV exchange of γdominates Atlarger energies √s ≥50 GeV Z0 and γexchange diagram, also Z0/γinterference Z0 Boson Production at energies √s ≈M Z production of real Z0 boson diagram with Z0 boson dominates Z0 boson is Breit-Wigner Resonanc

The W and Z Boson Spin Observables As Messengers of New

For instance the spin of a photon is either +1 or -1 and the spin of a 4 He atom is always zero. Many bosons can occupy a single quantum state. This allows them to A 4 He atom is made of 2 protons, 2 neutrons and 2 electrons, hence it is a boson Higgs boson (spin=0)—the only not yet discovered force/particle (its mass >114 GeV), invented to allow for Z, W, and fermion masses in the weak sector of SM . Its coupling to particles is related to their masses: the larger th Follow up video: https://youtu.be/z_6B2M12H9wResearch assignment: Teach me about spin.Below there are suggested questions, recommended sources and my social.

W and Z bosons - Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge cor

W-Boson. © 1996-2007 Eric W. Weisstei Z boson. Apparently, this user prefers to keep an air of mystery about them. 444. answers. 98. questions ~2.9m. people reached. Member for 7 years, 9 months. 12,717 profile views. Last seen 8 hours ago. Communities (17) Stack Overflow 29k 29k 10 10 gold badges 103 103 silver badges 193 193 bronze badges The Z′ boson may play an interesting role in the interaction between dark and visible matter, New evidence for electron's dual nature found in a quantum spin liquid. May 13, 2021

Spin (physics) - Wikipedi

In a ferromagnet spins align in a random direction until an external magnetic ﬁeld is applied which breaks rotational symmetry. 2. The Higgs Potential In electroweak theory the diﬀerence between the physical γ,W±,Z0 boson masses is created by spontaneous symmetr When light Z' has axial coupling, its production is similar to the axion (light pseudo Goldstone boson), as the Goldstone boson equivalence theorem says, which is often larger than gauge coupling. This can happen, for examples, in rare meson decays (K -> pi Z', B-> K Z') or Higgs decays (H -> Z Z', Z' Z') Particle Spin and the Stern-Gerlach Experiment The spin of an elementary particle would appear, on the surface, to be little diﬀerent from the spin of a macroscopic object - the image of a microscopic sphere spinning around some axis comes to mind

Probing Z′ gauge boson with the spin configurationof top quark pair production at future e−e+ linear colliders. Gyeong Hyun, Min. C. S. Kim Group Underlying Cuboctahedron Packing of Planck Spinning Spheres Structure of the Hubble Universe establishes a strong correlation, on multiple levels, between underlying packing of Planck Spinning Spheres structure of the Hubble Universe correlation with higgs mass, W boson, Z boson, bottom Quark and top Quark and a cuboctahedron -Vector Equilibrium structure using the mass of the neutron. The Z boson once again transforms into pairs of leptons, while the second particle transforms into pairs of pions (ππ) in the case of the ρ and into pairs of kaons (KK) in the case of the φ Buzzle is created and developed by six engineering students studying at KTH Royal Institute of Technology, as part of the course II1305 Project in Information and Communication Technolog Higgs boson. (spin 0) The Higgs boson is an excitation the Higgs field. The Higgs field gives other particles their inertial mass. Electroweak W and B bosons. (spin 1) W 1, W 2, W 3, and B bosons carry the electroweak force..

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